NATIONAL/ETHNIC IDENTITY: Peru ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: Gabriela Shiroma First appearance in SF EDF: 1996
De Rompe y Raja,founded in 1995, is a cultural organization dedicated to preserving and promoting Afro-Peruvian traditions and culture from the coastal region of Peru. Artistic Director Gabriela Shiroma formed this company with a focus on Afro-Peruvian music and dance, a genre where indigenous Peruvian, African, and European cultures intersect. De Rompe y Raja serves as a cultural bridge, enabling Afro-Peruvian master teachers to visit and share their art; and as an umbrella organization for related projects, including the youth ensemble Huaranguito, and El Atajo de San Francisco.
DANCE ORIGIN: Peru GENRE: Afro-Peruvian TITLE:Toromata—The Bull Kills ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: Gabriela Shiroma CHOREOGRAPHERS: Julio Cesar Baluarte, Gabriela Shiroma, Carlos Venturo DANCERS: Julio Cesar Baluarte, Fernanda Bustamante, Joseph Copley, Adriana Rodriguez, Gabriela Shiroma, Carlos Venturo, Tyese Wortham MUSICIANS: Maricruz Bisso (vocals), Fernanda Bustamante (violin), Max Guimarey (cajón), Jonathan Hernandez (cajón), José Roberto Hernandez (guitar), Alberto Palomino (congas), Peta Robles (cajón), Rosa Los Santos (vocals, percussion)
Toromata means The Bull Kills, and in this famous Afro-Peruvian piece, the bull refers to the Colonial Spanish who set out to conquer Peru, and established a viceroyalty there, 1542–1824. The song was originally sung and danced by enslaved Africans in Chincha and Canete, Peru. This choreography, by Gabriela Shiroma, is adapted from a 1970s version—with music by Peruvian composer Caitro Soto and choreography by Ronaldo Campos and Lalo Izquierdo from Company Perú Negro. The performance is quickly recognizable as a political statement: a charged mockery of the Conquistadores’ waltzes and minuets.
It begins with a solo dance representing the oppression and survival of the Afro-Peruvian people, with a lament from De España by poet César Calvo:
De España nos llego Cristo, pero tambien el patron. El patron igual que a Cristo al negro crucificó. Sobre la mar de mi sangre un toro bravo llegó. Embistiendo el toro llegó bailando minuet!
Christ came to us from Spain but so did “El Patron” “El Patron” crucified the Negro just as he did Christ A wild bull arrived, sailing over the sea of my blood charging, that bull arrived— and arrived dancing the minuet!
A minuet section follows, showing the connection between Toromata and colonial Peru, and honoring the dynamism of culture, music, and tradition.
Afro-Peruvian musical instruments reflect a complicated history. The cajón is the center of Afro-Peruvian culture, originally played by African dock workers in the ports of Peru, who created a vibrant music with packing crates. Spanish percussionist Rubem Dantas, who played with flamenco guitarist Paco de Lucía, brought the cajón home in the 1970s as a gift from Caitro Soto—and it’s now as fundamental to flamenco as the Spanish guitar is to coastal Peruvian music. The quijada—donkey jaw—is also an invention by musicians lacking instruments. The bongo drum, conga, and cow bell—also with African and European roots—arrived with Cuban artists in the 1960s.
De Rompe y Raja – Asociación Cultural Kanchis
DANCE ORIGIN: Peru TITLE:Hatajo De Negritos GENRE: Afro-Peruvian CHOREOGRAPHERS: Peta Robles, Gabriela Shiroma GUEST ARTIST: Miguel Ballumbrosio DANCERS: Juandiego Britto, Fernanda Bustamante, Norma Depina, Bárbara Diestra, Roxana Ferreira, Gabriella Guimarey, Max Guimarey, Jonathan Hernández, Pina López, Rosa Los Santos, Sylvia Pestana, Julissa Rivera, Marco Rivera, Miguel Sanchez, Erika Sarmiento, Trini Sarmiento, Gabriela Shiroma, Diego Zamalloa-Chion VIOLIN: Daniel Zamalloa
En Nombre de Dios comienzo Porque es bueno comenzar
In the name of God I will start Because that is the only way
Peru was the seat of the Spanish Viceroy in South America beginning in the 16th century. During nearly three hundred years of colonial rule, the culture and traditions of Peru’s indigenous population and people of African descent were almost completely absorbed into Spanish Catholicism. This piece, Hatajo de Negritos, pays homage to Black identity in rural Peru. It is a vignette of a Christmas festival in the town of El Carmen, Chincha—a festival with diverse elements from Peru’s cultural history.
During the festivities, a statue of the Virgin Mary is carried in procession. Young girls called pallas don bridal veils and sing carols to honor Mary and the baby Jesus. Young boys and men sing and dance to violin music in front of nativity scenes: celebrating in their homes, the village square, and in front of the church. The festivities end on January 6th with a procession to the sanctuary of the Blessed Melchorita, a local holy woman, in the neighboring village of Grocio Prado.
In this tradition, indigenous Peruvian, Spanish, and African cultures converge. The lyrics are from European Christmas carols, with some references to the hardships of slavery. Dancers carry hand bells and rope whips reminiscent of slavery, and they dance in parallel lines led by a caporal, or foreman. The melodies are of Spanish origin with a strong Andean influence. The quick zapateo footwork displays an African heritage.
In the 20th century, Familia Ballumbrosio—a family of dancers and musicians led by the late Amador Ballumbrosio, zapateador and violinist—continued and rejuvenated the hatajos tradition. Today, the festivities are a vital part of Chincha’s Afro-Peruvian life.
De Rompe y Raja’s performance is part of an ongoing cultural exchange with the Ballumbrosio and Córdova families, from El Carmen, Chincha, Peru. In 2013, De Rompe y Raja visited El Carmen, rehearsed these dances with local practitioners, and performed with Hatajo Amador Ballumbrosio. Our Festival was honored to have Amador’s son, master musician and dancer Miguel Ballumbrosio, as a guest leader of the hatajos.
DANCE ORIGIN: Peru GENRE: Afro-Peruvian TITLE: Ritmos
Negros Del Peru ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: Gabriela
Shiroma CHOREOGRAPHERS: Braulio Barrera (cajón), Javier Gordillo (dance), Peta
Robles (zapateo, cajitas y quijadas),Gabriela Shiroma (original idea) MUSICIAN/DANCERS: Braulio Barrera,Fernanda Bustamante, Javier Gordillo, Jose
Roberto Hernandez, Peta Robles, Pedro Rosales, Rosa Los Santos, Gabriela
Shiroma DANCERS: Roxana Ferreira, Zhayra Palma, Erica Sarmiento
Si me preguntan lo que más quiero, yo les respondo mi ritmo negro Por su saoco, por su salero y la sandunga siempre primero
If you ask me what do I love the most I will answer my Peruvian Black Rhythm For its wit and for its salt This is what always comes first
Ritmos Negros Del Perú means
Black Rhythms of Peru, and this
performance brings to life an Afro-Peruvian dance party. Six dances
summon the unhesitating rhythms of freedom.
set begins with Festejo, a contemporary Afro-Peruvian number,
and the next piece, Landó, exhibits ancient and ritual syncopations.
Next, Zapateo is named for the intricate a capella footwork
contest; and Panalivio, is an old mourning song that evokes
memories and rhythms from slavery times. The finaldance
sequence is Zamacueca and Marinera. The zamacueca was
born in poor neighborhoods as a New World interpretation of
Spanish affectation: Peruvians of European descent regarded it
as a low-class. It’s a style with ancient Andean rhythms, and
it evolved further into the Argentine zamba, the Chilean and
Bolivian cuecas, and the Mexican chilena—and the Peruvian
marinera, the national dance of struggle, independence,
passion, and love.
music, song, and dance are a single continuum of
rhythms, developed during Peru’s colonial period, when Africans,
brought to Peru as enslaved workers, merged their syncopations
with the lively dance and music of Spanish colonialists
and indigenous Peruvians. These forms have been celebrated,
preserved, and reinvented by countless drumming hands
and dancing feet.
Ritmos Negros Del Peru is
based on traditional dances, choreographed
in 2012 and set for this stage by Gabriela Shiroma
in collaboration with master artists Peta Robles, Braulio
Barrera, and Javier Gordillo. The song was composed
by Pedro Rosales. The company learned the traditional
dances from master dancers of renowned Afro-Peruvian
ensembles Peru Negro, Mamauca, Familia Vasquez,
and Familia Ballumbrosio.
costumes celebrate the colors of the Peruvian flag: red
for blood, war, slavery, suffering, passion, love, and life;
white for peace, purity, soul, survival, spirituality, and
freedom. Afro-Peruvian music relies on percussion instruments
developed by the Afro-Peruvian community. Cajon
is the wooden box drum, possibly invented when dock workers
played on crates. The quijada is a donkey jaw with loose
teeth, shaken as rattle or scraped rhythmically with a stick.
The cajita is a lidded box derived from the collection box in
TITLE:Mujer Negra CHOREOGRAPHER: Gabriela Shiroma 2012 DANCERS:Eleana Arizaga, Fernanda Bustamante, Roxana Ferreyra, Mariela
Herrera, Zhayra Palma, Sylvia Pestana, Erica Sarmiento, Gabriela Shiroma,
Tyese M. Wortham 2012 MUSICIANS: Jose Roberto Hernandez (guitar), Javier Nunton
(cajón), Alberto Palomino (conga), Davis Rodriguez (cow bell), Pedro
Rosales (cajón), Rosa Los Santos (lead vocalist), Miguel Sisniegas (donkey’s
jaw), Javier Trujillo (guitar), Daniel Zamalloa (guitar), Federico Zuñiga
2011 DANCERS: Eleana Arizaga, Fernanda Bustamante, Roxana Ferreyra, Mariela Herrera, Zhayra Palma, Sylvia Pestana, Erica Sarmiento, Gabriela Shiroma, Tyese M. Wortham 2011 MUSICIANS: Jose Roberto Hernandez (guitar), Javier Nunton (cajón), Alberto Palomino (conga), Davis Rodriguez (cow bell), Pedro Rosales (cajón), Rosa Los Santos (lead vocalist), Miguel Sisniegas (donkey’s jaw), Javier Trujillo (guitar), Daniel Zamalloa (guitar), Federico Zuñiga (bass)
Del Africa hasta esta tierra, mujer negra . . . Di de mamar a sus hijos, los cuidaba Les presto mi risa, Les presto mi fuego Les presto mi ritmo, Me celebro!
From Africa to this land, the black woman . . . I nursed their children, I cared for them I lend you my laughter, I lend you my fire, I lend you my rhythm, I celebrate myself!
Mujer Negra—Black Woman, pays tribute to Peru’s independence (1821), and to the contribution of Peruvian women of African descent. It is a unique all-women performance of the Afro-Peruvian zamacueca, traditionally a courtship dance. De Rompe y Raja honors the femininity and authoritativeness of African women, and their joy in political freedom.
Zamacueca is known as the Mother Dance of the Americas, a dance of celebration, gallantry, romance, independence, identity, and struggle. Its folkloric children include the Peruvian marinera, Argentine samba, Chilean and Bolivian cueca, Mexican chilena, and several California Gold Rush dances. Lima’s mostly-African population created the form in coastal Peru in the late eighteenth century Colonial period. For the Afro-Peruvians, it was a New World interpretation of Spanish affectation; for the European classes, it became the dance of dubious societies.
In the 1950s and ’60s era, Peruvian folkloric pioneers Jose Duran Flores and Victoria Santa Cruz revived the zamacueca and choreographed it for stage. This performance is in this post-revival style, emphasizing the African elements of syncopation, conga, cowbells, exaggerated pelvic movement, and call and response song. The cajón box drum was ingeniously invented by African dockworkers; the guitar and vocals are Spanish; the pentatonic harmonies are indigenous Andean.
The post-revival costume is also by Duran and Santa Cruz, inspired by Pancho Fierro’s 1800s era watercolors of original zamacueca dancers. The hats are from the colonial plantation; white and red handkerchiefs poke fun at the Spanish fandango and also represent Peru’s life’s blood.
Gabriela Shiroma created Mujer Negra in 2010. She learned the dance in Peru from Enrique Barrueto, Julio Casanova, Marlo Melgar, and Lalo Izquierdo, and she has researched this nearly-disappearing form for fifteen years.
TITLE: Son De Los Diablos Dance Origin: Coastal Peru Genre: Festejo Choreographer: Gabriela Shiroma Dancers: Michelle Aguero, Rosa Cabezudo, Yaccaira De
La Torre, Mariela Herrera, Rosa Los Santos, Zhayra Palma, Sylvia Pestana,
Carmen Roman, Erika Sarmiento, Gabriela Shiroma, Diana Suarez, Joanna Suarez,
Carlos Venturo, Carmen Violich Musicians: Juan Carlos Angulo (2nd cajón),
Edmond Badeaux (harp), Ryan Chesire (cajita), Lichi Fuentes (vocals), Omar
Gutierrez (quijada), Marina Lavalle (vocals), Erik Molina (cajita), David Pinto
(guitar), Pedro Rosales (cajón & vocals), Frances Vidal (cajita &
vocals), Federico Zuñiga (bass)
Son de los Diablos
(Song-dance of the Devils) is an Afro-Peruvian
street masquerade dance that originated in
In the 1500s, Spanish colonialists
prohibited Africans generally from dancing, but also forced them to perform
traditional African dances in morality plays and Corpus Christi pageants, dressed as devils in straw and goatskins.
By the time slavery was abolished in 1854,
Afro-Peruvians had appropriated this dance as a symbol of cultural resistance.
de los Diablos dance was paraded through Afro-Peruvian
neighborhoods during carnival time. Dancers
painted their faces with flags of African countries, performed stunts and
tricks in masks, and burlesqued and parodied devils, with marching cuadrillas (teams of dancers and
musicians) of little devils kept in line with the Diablo Mayor's (Head Devil's) whip. These performances evolved into
fierce zapateo competitions, lengthy
theatrical pieces, and religious parodies, such as one in which the Diablo Mayor forced the little devils to
form a choreographic cross.
President Manuel Prado banned
the increasingly “wild” carnaval in
the 1940s, but the devils kept coming back. In the mid-50s, visionary
folklorists Jose Duran and Victoria Santa
Cruz staged an ethnographic recreation based on a 19th-century watercolor by
Pancho Fierro. In the 1980's, Lima's Movimiento
Negro Francisco Congo and Grupo Cultural Yuyachkani revived the dance because
of its theatricality, and also as a way to begin examining and erasing colonial
assumptions: as "a collective exploration of embodied social memory,
particularly in relation to questions of ethnicity, violence, and memory in
Peru." In 2004, in Lima's
carnival, the devils took back the streets, as comparsas from all over Lima
arrived to dance Son de los Diablos.
The choreography of this piece
represents the dance as it was seen in Peru's
first years of Independence
(1821-1850). The costumes are based on Pancho Fierro's 1800s watercolor. The
wonderfully expressive smaller masks were made in Peru by Grupo Cultural Yuyachkani, and the larger mask was made in the Bay Area by
Edmund Badeaux from the Chaskinakuy Andean music group. The traditional son music was recovered from fragments
of guitar melody, and older performers' memories of rhythms on the cajita (wooden collection boxes from
churches, turned into percussion instruments worn around the neck) and the quijada (the jawbone of a donkey, horse,
or mule, scraped or struck to make the molars rattle in their sockets.) For
this piece, the cajón (Afro-Peruvian
wooden box drum) and guitar lead the piece.
In honor of People Like Me's 15th Anniversary (World Arts West's arts education program), De Rompe y Raja Cultural Association portrays the brother of
the Sun Goddess—the angry storm god—and his attendant in an abbreviated version of Return of the Sun, the story of Amaterasu, the Japanese Sun Goddess.Fortunately these
fearsome dancers calm down when the Sun Goddess returns, reassuring us that
darkness, storm, and winter will always balance and complete the light.
TITLE:Homenaje a Mis Maestros (A Tribute to the Masters) GENRE: Zapateo Negro ARTISTIC DIRECTOR/ CHOREOGRAPHER: Gabriela Shiroma DANCERS: Michelle Aguero, Rosa Cabezudo, Annahi Hernandez, Sylvia Pestana, Carmen Roman, Gabriela Shiroma MUSICIANS: Rosa Los Santos (vocals), Emperatriz Luperdi (guapeo), Vladimir Vukanovich (vocals), andPedro Rosales (vocals/cajón)
Homenanje a Mis Maestros is A Tribute to the Masters, celebrating the drumming and subtle footwork of Afro-Peruvian Masters of zapateo criollo. Zapateo literally means shoe tapping and zapateo criollo is sometimes called "Peruvian tap dance." Dancers and musicians engage in an animated call and response—playing syncopated hard shoe footwork off the rhythms of guitar, cajón, and vocals.
Zapateo criollo originated in the Afro-Peruvian communities of coastal Peru. In the 16th -19th centuries, Spanish colonizers transported thousands of enslaved Africans to Peru, and their labor turned Peruvian ports into bustling centers of immigration and trade. As Afro-Peruvian communities grew, they developed unique styles of dance and music, mixing African rhythms with Creole, Spanish Roma, European, and indigenous Peruvian rhythms. It's said that Africans in Peru invented the cajón—the wooden box drum used in all kinds of Latin American music—as they improvised rhythms on wooden fruit crates. In many neighborhoods instruments were scarce, so musicians and dancers perfected a vocal style simulating a guitar's plunks, plinks, and strums.
Zapateo criollo evolved into a contest of skilled footwork, and its judges enforced a complex set of rules. Dancers performed five paradas (footwork patterns) in order; then performed the same paradas in reverse order; then ended with a redoble (footwork roll). Contestants were not allowed to repeat the patterns already danced by them or their competitors. Instead, they began by improvising in a style borrowed from a master dancer, and gradually became known for their own distinctive steps.
Traditionally, only men danced the zapateo, so the women dancers of De Rompe y Raja present a twist on tradition. The one male dancer/drummer attempts to take over from the rest of the company, because he "knows how to do it better." As you watch the friendly competition, remember that de rompe y raja meansincredible!When a friend asks, "How was the party last night?" the answer is . . . DE ROMPE Y RAJA!!
TITLE:El Bueno y El Malo (The Good Guy and The Bad Guy) GENRE: Zapateo Criollo ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: Gabriela Shiroma MUSICAL DIRECTOR: Pedro Rosales CHOREOGRAPHER/SOLOIST: Freddy Lobaton MUSICIAN: Jose Roberto Hernandez
The most distinctive Afro-Peruvian music is known as músicacriolla and is typically performed in intimate peñas (pubs) and family gatherings, as well as large public celebrations. Hailed as one of Peru’s great traditions, criollo music was given a commemoration day – October 31st is declared Día de la Canción Criolla. Zapateo is the dance style associated with criollo music. Derived from the word zapato, meaning shoe, zapateo is a kind of tap dancing competition between two dancers to the rhythm of the guitar and the cajón. In Peru there are yearly zapateo festivals and contests where renowned dancers exhibit the subtle yet intricately syncopated footwork derived from African rhythms.
El Bueno y El Malo (The Good Guy and The Bad Guy), is an innovative version of zapateocriollo performed as a solo by Freddy Lobaton. Here he interprets the personalities of two characters through alternating gestures, body facings, and footwork.
TITLE OF PIECE:Mama Ñangue GENRE: Festejo DANCERS: Rosa Caberzudo, Regina Califa, Emperatriz Luperdi, Silvia
Pestana, Katherine Porras,
Carmen Roman, Gabriela Shiroma, Sandra Silva MUSICIANS:
Juan Carlos Angulo,
Hector Benites, Carlos Britto, Lalo Izquierdo,
Marina La Valle, Ivan Lino Montes,
Rosa Los Santos, Vladimir Vukanovich, Pedro
Rosales, Jose Soto
Festejo is a festive
first developed in the plantation fields during the 18th century.
would employ Spanish elements as the guitar and lyrics, adding
African elements like
the cajón and other percussive instruments. The
most joyous of Afro-Peruvian music and dance, festejos
express happiness and freedom. There is a teasing and
between men and women through undulating movements of smooth
broken lines and sudden stops. After a 1950s renaissance of interest, festejo dances have become a part of contemporary
Peruvian culture and are commonly practiced at social events.
In Mama Ñangue, presented by De Rompe y Raja, a wedding
celebration is announced in the plantation field, which is a joyous declaration, as it
means a day free from work!