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Aerophones - Winds
(cumulative list, from all years' programs)

Instrument: Accordion
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Polish Mountain Dances, Commedia dell'Arte, Romani dance forms, Hungarian Dance accordion is a portable instrument based on free reeds activated by a keyboard and a set of bellows. The concertina and the accordion were both invented in 1829, one in England and one in Vienna, Austria. The accordion was brought to the U.S. in the mid-1830's, and was called the French Accordion because of its great popularity in France at the time. The German accordion was mass-produced by German manufacturers after the 1850's, and enjoyed widespread popularity in America. The Button and Piano Accordions became popular after World War I. The Piano accordion is often associated with polka music in the U.S., and in France the Button accordion is the king of musette music. Versions of the accordion are used in cajun music, in Eastern European music, in Argentine tango, and in many other types of music worldwide. 1

accordion 2

Instrument: Flute
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Commedia dell'Arte, Maya

The flute is the instrument that serves as the soprano voice in most bands, orchestras, and woodwind groups. Most flutes are made of metal and consist chiefly of a tube with a mouthpiece near one end. The musician holds the flute horizontally and blows across an oval shaped hole in the mouthpiece. At the same time, the musician presses levers on the flute, called keys. The keys, when depressed and released, open and close tone holes on the flute to produce different notes.


Instrument: Piccolo
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Commedia dell'Arte
The piccolo is a type of transverse flute that is pitched an octave above the concert (or standard) flute. It has a range of nearly three octaves and reaches the highest pitches of a modern orchestra. It is used for special effects in orchestras but is more widely used in concert and marching bands. It is played in the same manner as a flute.

The piccolo was originally made out of wood and was featured in many prominent composers' works. One of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. However, the most familiar use of the piccolo is in the end of John Philip Sousa's "The Stars and Stripes Forever."

Instrument: Quena
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Andean Dance
The quena is native flute of the Andes, originating many centuries before the Spanish conquest, and it holds a position of substantial prominence in Andean culture. The quena is a vertical flute, tubular in shape, open at both ends, with a U-shaped mouthpiece. It has six finger holes in front and one in the back. Quenas are available in a variety of sizes, according to purpose and to local customs. It can be made of wood or bamboo, though traditionally is made of clay, stone and bone, especially the wing bones of the condor.


Instrument: Sikus
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Andean Dance

Sikus (plural of siqu) are also called panpipes or zampoņas. The siqu is of Aymara origin from the highlands of Bolivia, and is made out of 17 cane tubes arranged in two rows. Sikus come in four sizes, with the smallest at about 4 inches to the largest at about 5 feet long. Their names are from small to large: ica, malta, zanca and toyo. They are played in sets of two, in interlocking melody and rhythm. The musicians who play the sikus and dance at the same time are known as Siquris.


Instrument: Saxophone
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Commedia dell'Arte
The family of saxophones patented in 1846 by Adolphe Sax (from Belgium) combines the single reed of the clarinet with the bore and fingering patterns of the oboe, producing the tonal qualities of neither. The instruments fit well into bands, for their sound blends well with brass and woodwind instruments; their application to the orchestra has been more limited, because saxophones tend to dominate the varied tonal characteristics of that ensemble. Saxophones are made in seven sizes and pitch levels, spanning the entire spectrum of wind-instrument pitches. The most common are the alto and tenor saxophones.

Instrument: Sho
Dance/Movement Style in PLM:

The Japanese sho is a free-reed instrument consisting of 17 vertical bamboo pipes, fastened in place by a metal base. It is played by the inhalation and exhalation of the breath, resulting in extended periods of sound. It was introduced into Japanese culture by the Chinese in the seventh and eighth centuries, influenced by the Chinese sheng, and is typically associated with gagaku, or Japanese imperial court music.

Instrument: Sheng
Dance/Movement Style in PLM:

The Chinese sheng is a free-reed instrument consisting of 13-17 vertical bamboo pipes, fastened in place by a gourd-shaped, wooden base. It is played by blowing air into the base, and covering two or more holes on the various pipes creates different sounds and chords. It is capable of producing six notes simultaneously and is often referred to as the “Chinese mouth organ.” It has origins in the Chinese Zhou Dynasty spanning from 1045 to 256 BC.

Instrument: Piri
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Geommu

The piri is a Korean double reed instrument, used in both the folk and classical (court) music of Korea. It is made of bamboo. Its large reed and cylindrical bore gives it a sound mellower than that of many other types of oboe.

Instrument: Daegeum
Dance/Movement Style in PLM: Geommu

The daegeum is a large bamboo transverse flute used in traditional Korean music. It has a buzzing membrane that gives it a special timbre. It is used in court, aristocratic, and folk music, as well as in contemporary music, popular music, and film scores.



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